Unit 3 Lecture – Impact of Brexit on the Cultural sector in the UK and the Rise of Nationalism in the EU

Context: EU was set up in order to better negotiate with the world on trading and other conditions. Live better in peace, prosperity, more connected and collaborative. Referendum in the UK on 23 June to ask the populous if they want to remain in the EU or leave.

Actual process of leaving the EU begin on 29 March 2017 when Article 50 of the Lison treaty was triggered – from that moment it will take 2 years in which the UK has to finish the process of leaving the EU.

Timeline tracker

What about the Art Market: Jenny Saville, Shift was sold at Sotheby’s 29 June 2016 estimated 1.5-2 million pound, sold at 6.81 million pound. Bidding war between Larry Gagosian and anonymous phone bidder -Bought by Wang Wei and liu Yiqian for the long museum in shanghai for “she” exhibition starting end July 2016.


Who I am

I, am probably the most pessimistic person in the world.

I was scared of the world when I was little, constantly having nightmares with fears of strangers. I still remember that one I had before school age, that everyone on earth had the same blurred, pale white paint face, moving around a few inches above ground without any movement of the legs, kind of like ghosts, i could not hide from them, since they were everywhere. I hadn’t seen any ghost movies then.

Today, I’m not scared of people anymore, but my perspective has shifted to the ugliness of human and the dark side of the humanity.

I wanted to learn about Psychology, mostly fascinated about the dark side of the human psychology, and what is the internal motives for people to do the things that they do. But I winced since I started to realize in order to peep into other people’s mind, I’d have to dig into my own emotional garbage, locked doors, dark secrets in order to understand who I am. The idea of that frightens me. As pessimistic as I am, emerge into too many negatives things would have destroyed me.

I picked Arts and Cultural, since i thought whatever I learn would be harmless. But it turns out, the arts can also be expressed in a shocking way that mimic the act of inhumanity and even horror. I was deeply sad and disgusted by the Man eating Fetus act by that so called Performing artist. And there must be something in his head that made sense of all these, but it doesn’t appear obvious to others. There again, the psychology comes into play.

Unit 3 Intro – Global Challenges

Some art projects dealing with Global challenges

Francis Alys

When Faith Moves Mountains

The Green Line

Interview by Jean Fisher : In Spirit of Conviviality

  • Land artist Michael Heizer’s double negative 1969 – a displacement of 240K tons of earth in the Nevada desert;
  • Water de Maria’s Lighting Field, 1977 – 400 steel lightning conductors set in a grid over a square mile of the New Mexico desert;
  • Robert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty, 1970

Adrian Piper’s 1907 -71 Catalysis series f absurd street performance.

Catalysis I

Adrian Piper’s works are about taking risks and challenging herself as an artist. She dives right into the concept without any hesitation or self-doubt. She did just that for her first performance of the Catalysis Series too. She soaked her clothes in a mixture of vinegar, eggs, milk, and cod-liver oil for a week. She then wore these on a public train in the evening. There is nothing else that could provoke more reactions from surrounding people than wearing the nasty smell of vinegar on a public train during rush hours.

Catalysis II

Essentially a recording of the artist whistling along a piece by Bach, the German composer, the second performance was a much subdued version of a commentary on social behavior and norms.

Catalysis III

The third performance included a shopping trip to Macy’s, a departmental store. The artist wore clothing that had previously been painted with sticky white emulsion paint. The front of her shirt read “WET PAINT”. Just like a park bench marked with the same warning, she became a thing of curiosity. Anyone witnessing a similar scenario would be intrigued to know whether the paint was actually wet. They would want to touch her, but would not do so in fear of doing something that might perhaps have been offensive in a ‘normal’ situation.

Catalysis IV

Carried out in 1971, the seventh piece involved Piper going into public places and taking public transport with a mouthful, literally! She had stuffed a white bath towel on the sides of her mouth with the other end hanging out in front of her. With this defiance of proper public conduct, she was coercing her audience to shun or scorn her behavior.

Catalysis V

Libraries require a certain social conduct. Naturally, one of Piper’s performances was staged at the Donnell Library, New York. The artist had recorded herself making belches at five-minute intervals previously. For the performance, she hid the tape recorder on her and carried on her usual research, reading and searching for books, while it loudly played in the background.

Catalysis VI

Possibly the piece that attracted the most attention, Catalysis VI involved some helium-filled Mickey Mouse balloons. The artist walked around Central Park in New York with these tied to her ears, her teeth as well as her hair. As compared to the rest of the performances, this was also the most theatrical one.

Catalysis VII

For the last performance, Piper demonstrated the same courage and audacity as her very first work of the series. She actually played the role of a viewer and the viewed simultaneously at the Metropolitan Museum Of Art, New York. While experiencing the art, she chewed on large amounts of chewing gum, blew up large balloons and let the remnants of the gum remain on her face. Possibly the most interesting out of the lot, this work not only challenged social norms but also the roles of the artist as well as the viewer.

Waste Water Bottle Exhibition

Unit 2 Feedback – B Minus

Assessment on Research: B

Assessment on Subject Knowledge: C

Assessment on Communication and Presentation: C

General Comments:

The topic is interesting but it could be more arts and cultural oriented. You have done some researches on Artificial Intelligence but the effort applying Unit concepts and knowledge is insufficient. It is wonderful to bring up the “new cultural renaissance” but there is no further discussion about it. The second part of your paper (p.2-3) looks a bit descriptive and not focused enough. Try not to use bullet points in an academic essay, too.

The linkage between the second and the third part is a bit weak. For the third part about observation and case studies in the Creative industry, the content is comprehensive with effort in researching concepts. Paragraphs are a big disjointed or incomplete. The two case studies are descriptive in general while showing little integration with the unit’s concepts. The examples of Wikipedia cannot fully explain how has the site been developed itself into a collaborative online platform for stimulating creativity. The case about Grayson Perry is not analytical enough with regard to purpose of this paper and clarity of thought. This paper can be improved with a more focused research topic and systematic presentation of ideas addressing both conceptual and practice aspects of the unit.

Comments from second marker:

You have come up with a great research topic on how the digitalisation process has threatened the concept that only humans can create ideas, which also has its mixed implications to the creative industry development. The literature (both theoretical discussions and industry statistical data) reviewed and empirical researches cited appropriately connect with the research question, although at times they are cited in a rather scattered manner. Further integration of such ideas into her analysis and case studies (Wikipedia and Grayson Perry’s tapestries) would make it more sound and convincing. You should also be critical when using the ideas proposed by various authors/theories, e.g., Florida’s assertion that today’s economy is fundamentally a creative economy may not be essential true.


“The real danger is not that computers will begin to think like men, but that men will begin to think like computers.”

  • Sydney J. Harris, American Journalist


On 1 June 2016, Google Brain, an artificial intelligence research team published their first AI-generated composition, a 90-second piano melody (Conrad, D. 2016). Nothing fancy, even childish, the machine, with deep learning algorithm applied, is still far from becoming a musical genius. But I don’t feel that relieved, as a Sci-Fi fan since childhood, I find it a little disturbing, it’s not about a piece of music that the machine generated, it’s about the research itself: Can machine learn to create like human?

Human takes pride in his creativity, it is “the ultimate inexhaustible source of growth” (Menger, P.M. 2006). It has advanced civilization by improving human living conditions in the past decades. With the advance in technology, scientist have stepped in the field of mapping out how human brains work, and experienced breakthroughs in the development of Artificial Intelligence. So machines will learn to create, science fictions of robots may come true one day. I think this will be a major step forward for mankind. But, what would happen to the creative industry and the creative labours.

In this paper, I would like to focus on examining some research findings and observations to address my own worry: more and more tasks used to be performed by men would be taken over by digitalisation and automation, how would it affect the development of creativity industry in the future?


  1. Advances in Technology and Indication to Human Creativity

Nothing better describes the advance of technology in the modern world than the “Industrial Revolutions”.

“Fourth Industrial Revolution is the digital revolution… is characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres (Schwab K. 2016) …With the ability to visualise brain activity, for example, through a consumer-based EEG device, it gives us access to ourselves in ways we have never before thought possible.”  (Schwab K. 2016 Video)

It won’t be long before machines can learn just like people do, be able to create based on the scenarios we get them to experience, so called “Artificial Intelligence” has drawn so many top minds and efforts in the fields of research.

“Just as the industrial revolution freed up a lot of humanity from physical drudgery. I think AI has the potential to free up humanity from a lot of the mental drudgery.”  – Andrew Ng, Founder of Google Brain Project (Hof. R. 2014)

It is happening all around us now, in the insurance industry, many of my co-workers and myself have started taking Artificial Intelligence class. AI is commonly used to assist people online with frequently asked questions by carrying out a human like conversation. This would save a human service center operator great level of mental stress for answering the same questions over and over again.

For every student in the AI course, the objective of learning was laid out very clearly upfront. It is “the study and design of intelligence agents, where an intelligence agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.” In other words, make machines that “act rationally”. (Russel and Norvig, 2014)

Not only do we create machines that think like human, but also we teach machines to do the right thing. It is the perfect extension of where we want the human creativity to develop, with the help of AI, people’s mind will be less confined and more creative.

As echoed by Schwab: The new technology age, if shaped in a responsible way, could catalyse a new cultural renaissance that will enable us to feel part of something much larger than ourselves – a true global civilization” (Schwab K. 2016)


  1. Then, how much of human creativity will be replaced by digitalisation and automation?

I found some recent studies done by organizations that shared my curiosity, specifically on the impact on occupations affected by digitisation and automation, but different emphases. In summary, their findings indicate that:

  • Technological advances, particularly in machines that can perform complex tasks, has polarized labour market, and has created wage inequality. (Gibbs, M. 2017)


The study suggests that the “hollowing out” of middle skilled, routine jobs has a drastic impact on wage inequality. As middle-skill opportunities shrink, giving rise to high and low-skill jobs, wages also become either high or low. This disparity has already impacted the economy and will continue to change the labour market’s landscape. With technology and robotics that augment human creativity and cognition, the labour market polarization and wage inequality can only be further increased. (Gibbs, M. 2017)


This reminds me of Richard Florida’s observation back in 2002, related to the “Rise of Creative Class”…. “Growing alongside the Creative class is another social grouping I call the Service Class-which contains low-end, typically low-wage and low autonomy occupations in the so-called ‘service sector’ of the economy. The growth of this Service Class is in large measure a response to the demands of the Creative economy. Members of the Creative Class, because they are well compensated and work long and unpredictable hours, require a growing poll of low-end service workers to take care of them and do their chores. This class has thus been created out of economic necessity because of the way the Creative Economy operates. “(Florida R. 2002)


  • Those “middle-skilled, routine jobs” that tend to be replaced are those with job activities focusing on “Data Collection”, “Processing Data”, “Predictable Physical Work” (Chui, M, Manyika, J. Miremadi, M. 2016)


Current technology could be used to automate 45% of individual activities, but only 5% of occupations can be completed automated. Almost every job has a significant percentage of its activities that can be automated.


According to the study, it’s more technically feasible to automate predictable physical activities than unpredictable ones.  And if the activities involved in any occupation are broken down into “Managing others”, “Applying expertise”, “Stakeholder Interactions”, “Unpredictable Physical work”, “Data Collection”, “Processing Data”, “Predictable Physical Work”. The last three categories of activities have very high chance of being computerised and automated.


This will have a profound impact to the future labour market, those qualities involving interactions, expertise and creative problem solving with unpredictable challenges will be even more valued. This is definitely a positive reinforcement of one’s belief that in a “Creative economy”, in the scale of these activities involved, more people would be focused on the first three categories and create more ideas, and in the meantime, people would rather stay at routine activities will be replaced and have to change in order to survive.


  • As technology progresses, creative skills will become more important, meaning that places that have specialised in creative work will most likely be the main beneficiaries of the digital age. (NESTA, 2015)


Despite the expanding scope of automation, Frey and Osborne (2013) shows that creativity remains a key bottleneck to computerisation. In line with these, NESTA study shows that creative jobs are the least susceptible to automation. By contrast, while the next wave of computer-related technologies is likely to displace a wide range of occupations, they are also likely to complement creative workers. The study findings suggest that many of the occupations that are intensive in creative tasks are jobs that are directly associated with the arrival of new technologies.


NESTA 2015 study concludes that while occupation creativity is inversely related to computerisability, the new technology has enabled a new level of creativity. More generally, the digitisation of the economy is likely to further increase the demand for creative skills.


These studies confirmed that human creativity is the driver behind the technology advance and the industrial revolution, but at the same time human creativity is also being challenged and shaped to reach to the highest level because of the advance in technology.


  1. Observations and Case studies in the Creative industry


  • Digitalisation has challenged Hong Kong’s publishing industry, but also presents opportunities


There are 11 industries categories in Creative and Culture Industry in Hong Kong, despite the overall increase of value added and the employment number, the Publishing industry has demonstrated a rather moderate growth in both measures, and it showed decrease from 2013 to 2014.  (Census and Statistics Department, 2016)

There is no doubt that digitalisation is the biggest cause of this decline. Hong Kong’s print media giant Next Media issued announcement in 2015 to downsize and layoff relevant employees, and to change its name to “Next Digital” reflecting a strategic move to align its business into the digital space and provide a clearer identity and image for company. (Tam I. 2015) As the end of 30 September 2016, stated in their Interim Report 2016, the revenue had a 24.8% decrease than same period last year. The reduced circulation caused the print advertising revenue. However, its digital business division has been increasing, its external revenue, which consists of subscription fees, online advertising revenue, content licensing payments, games and content sponsorship, and in-app purchase of virtual products, has reported 2.1% against the same month last year.

There is clear advantage to the digitalisation, it no longer confines the distribution to a local market. Next Digital opens its USA platform, and immediately it sees significant traffic from the overseas Chinese population. As of September 2016, Apple Daily has recorded over 1.5 million monthly unique visitors in USA, and 420,000s in Canada. (Next Digital Interim Report Sept 2016)


  • “Open Collaboration” is on the rise, a new way of nurturing and stimulating creativity.


“Open source software” is booming, many of today’s ground breaking artists work with software, from data visualisations to interactive video projects. Open-source creative coding tools like Processing, Cinder, and openFrameworks (Von Baldegg, K.CM.V, 2013). They are ready for people to take away and make greater things. Anne Luther, our guest speaker from Unit One, also uses open source platform https://d3js.org/  to develop software for data visualisation.


Another kind of Open Collaboration is idea sharing. I’ve listened to numerous talks in Tedx events on YouTube, where speakers talk about their ideas worth spreading.


Wikipedia has become the new Encyclopaedia for free, and around the same time,  Encyclopedia Britanniaca has ceased printing (Giles, J. 2005 quoted by Sheen S. Levine, Prietula, M.J 2015) after 244 years of circulation.


All these open collaborators rely on the free contributions of certain experts, and the contributors take their contributions as trophies. The strong motivation behind the contributors is “peer recognition”, i.e., being recognize as competent and successful (Florida, 2002). What a healthy way to nurture and stimulate creativity.


  • In the case of Artistic creation, the automation happens during the collective efforts in <All in the Best Possible Taste with Grayson Perry> (2012)


Grayson Perry, the leading artist in the UK worked on tapestries that was filmed by a series called <All in the Best Possible Taste>. However, he didn’t “make tapestries” himself, only designed blueprints, machines made them.


Grayson interacted with people he wanted to describe, visited their homes, felt their emotions, attended dinner parties, drinks, sports events etc. He intentionally collected every detail that may reflect the people’s tastes, and then he made sketches, and worked with computer software to fine tune the compositions, and used a Belgium manufacturer to make the tapestry using machines. His creation was thus born, and presented back to the people who inspired him. During the whole process, with the help of director, producers, editors, and TV crew, the making of his arts was documented an Award winning series, broadcasted throughout the Nation, now also available in YouTube with worldwide reach.


The production of the series is truly a collective activity. Nobody can deny what Grayson has made is art, just that with the help of technology, his blueprint was efficiently made by computer software, and automated the production using machines. In the division of Labours, the craftsman skill, which could have been a time consuming piece back in the Louis XV era, was now automated, and it didn’t affect the Artist’s vision and expression of ideas.



Today’s economy is fundamentally a Creative Economy (Florida, 2002). I need to end the article here, but still with even heightened curiosity of looking further into the more concrete development of the making of creative machines.

The development of digitalisation and automation has a profound impact to the structure in the work force structure. People who create economic value through their creativity become highly valued, they are the exact type of people who are behind the scene of the creative machines. Activities that can be done by machines, let them be done by machines, as long as we use them to maximize our success. Whether or not the science fictions can come true one day, the tolerance for mediocrity, satisfying with a routine work will ultimately run out. Humans need to stay creative and keep finding ways to make lives better. Sharing and collaborations will spread the seeds for innovation. The future of us resides definitely in the infinite source of our creativity.


(2,184 words)




  1. Conrad, D. (2016) i-programmer, available at www.i-programmer.info/news/105-artificial-intelligence/9800-google-magenta-project.html Accessed: 15 May 2017
  2. Menger, P.M. (2006) Artistic labor markets: Contingent work, excess supply and occupational risk management.Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture,1, pp.765-811.
  3. Schwab, K. (2016)World Economic Forum. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-what-it-means-and-how-to-respond (Accessed: 13 May 2017).
  4. Schwab, K. (2016)World Economic Forum. Embedded Video featuring Nita Farahany, Duke University Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=khjY5LWF3tg (Accessed: 13 May 2017).
  5. Hof. R. (2014) Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/roberthof/2014/08/28/interview-inside-google-brain-founder-andrew-ngs-plans-to-transform-baidu/#54130af840a4 (Accessed: 22 May 2017)
  6. World Economic Forum (2016) The Fourth Industrial Revolution | Full Version (Subtitled). Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=khjY5LWF3tg (Accessed: 13 May 2017).
  7. Russell S. Norvig P. (2014) Artificial Intelligence, A Modern Approach Third Edition. Pearson Education.
  8. Gibbs, M (2017) “Machines and the modern day labor market.” University of Chicago Booth School of Business. Available at: https://newschicagobooth.uchicago.edu/newsroom/machines-and-modern-day-labor-market (Accessed: 15 May 2017)
  9. Florida, R. (2002) The Rise of The Creative Class. Basic books.
  10. Chui, M. Manyika, J. Miremadi, M. (2016) Where machines could replace humans – and where they can’t (yet), McKinsey Quarterly July 2016
  11. National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA), 2015 “Creativity vs. Robots. The Creative Economy and The Future of Employment”
  12. Census and Statistics Department, Hong KONG SAR (2016)Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics. Hong Kong “The Cultural and Creative Industries in Hong Kong”
  13. Tam I. (2015) “Next Media downsizes, intends to rename as Next Digital”, Marketing. Available at: www.marketing-interactive.com/next-media-intends-rename-next-digital/ (Accessed: 21 May 2017).
  14. NextDigital (2016) 2016/2017 Interim Report, Hong Kong. Aavailable at: http://www.nextdigital.com.hk/investor/index.php?route=investor/category/view_file&filename=e_0282_IR_29112016.pdf.0c639624978515eb53801e23ec56a5a0 (Accessed 21 May 2017)
  15. Von Baldegg, K. CM. 2013 “Open-Source Art and the Rise of ‘Creative Coding’, The Atlantic Available at https://www.theatlantic.com/video/archive/2013/01/open-source-art-and-the-rise-of-creative-coding/466476/ (Accessed: 23 May 2017)
  16. Giles, J. 2005. Internet Encyclopaedias Go Head to Head. Nature 438 (15 December 2005) 900-1.
  17. Levine, S.S. Prietula, M. J (2015) Open Collaboration for Innovation: Principles and Performance. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0be2/e2b2304b1813717b1a404fc6facd8a3ebbaf.pdf (Accessed: 22 May 2017)
  18. All in the Best Possible Taste with Grayson Perry (2012) Directed by Neil Crombie, UK: Channel 4 Television

View story at Medium.com

View story at Medium.com

View story at Medium.com

View story at Medium.com

View story at Medium.com

Machine and Modern Day Labour


A new study from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business’ Michael Gibbs finds that technological advances, particularly in machines that can perform complex tasks, have begun to dramatically change jobs and labor markets. While this phenomenon has had an economic effect, it has also reprioritized which qualities are most important in a valuable employee. Many analytical, social and creative skills cannot be replicated by machines, and therefore make a strong case for a continued need for human workers.

The labor market has become polarized: while middle-skill jobs become increasingly automated, high-skill jobs that require a combination of cognitive skills, creative acumen and leadership expertise have not been affected. Similarly, low-skill jobs that require customer service or rely on teamwork have not been as drastically changed by automated systems. Therefore, it is the middle-skill, routine occupations that have been decimated by the technological revolution.

For example, certain aspects of the medical field have been impacted by the popularity of automated machines. Many diagnostic tests, nursing tasks and surgical tools have become automated by complex machines and programs. However, certain jobs simply cannot be replicated by machines. A nurse’s interaction with his or her patients is invaluable and impossible to effectively replicate. Similarly, while machines can assist with tasks before, during and after a surgery, a machine cannot replace a skilled, human surgeon.

Gibbs’ study suggests that this “hollowing-out” of middle-skill, routine jobs has a drastic impact on wage inequality. As middle-skill opportunities shrink, giving rise to high and low-skill jobs, wages also become either high or low. This disparity has already impacted the economy and will continue to change the labor market’s landscape. Automation in the workforce naturally impacts current employees, but students and job-seekers should take heed of the patterns that have emerged. Since the jobs that are harder to automate involve creativity, cognition and social skills, job-seekers should develop these intangible qualities to make themselves more valuable to potential employers.

On the other hand, Gibbs suggests that future research and legislation should focus on how technology and robotics could augment human creativity and cognition. Such research could enhance artificial intelligence and make robots even more common and valuable to the labor market. Although such significant technological advances would only increase labor market polarization and wage inequality, it would pave the way for the future of effective machinery.

<Risk and Uncertainty in the Art World>

At times, the forces of change seem to pull the art world in competing directions. As the feared power of the expert art critique has waned, the influence of mass-market media, online recommendations and search engines, enabled by information technology, has arguably democratised the art world and encouraged access. The unprecedented amount of information available online about objects and transactions has revolutionised the way business is done and who can do it. At the same time, ever-escalating prices and the economic power of those who can pay the winning bid have made the art world more exclusive by raising the stakes and the barriers to entry and access to objects for both people and institutions, including museums. As old gatekeepers lose their influence, new gatekeepers, such as art fairs and websites, have grown in importance. The art world ’ s client base has also become more diverse and geographically dispersed as wealth from ‘ emerging ’  economies and new industries, such as finance and high-tech, enable oligarchs to compete with entrepreneurs and hedge-fund managers for the most fashionable objects. As consumer demographics change, a younger, more international clientele with omnivorous tastes and an army of advisors are happy to place antiquities alongside contemporary artworks in their homes, their foundations and private museums around the world.


2nd article from <risk and uncertainly in the art world>

Tom Christopherson 2014

Failure to maintain an appropriate process for assessing, recording, packing, shipping and unpacking the work at each stage of its journey would lead to a signifi  cantly enhanced risk of loss or damage, with disputes over liability for such damage. Even where such extensive arrangements for international travel are not contemplated, the art market routinely has to address condition issues in the receiving, cataloguing, exhibiting, selling and then delivery of fragile artworks. These issues and associated risks are more prevalent now than ever before as a result of the global expansion of the market through telephone and Internet bidding, increased reliance upon condition reports and online images, and with delivery of works often arranged by the seller or their agent. It is a prerequisite for art market practitioners to ensure that risk of loss or damage is clearly covered by applicable contractual provisions and relevant insurance policies at all stages of the transaction, and that both are properly understood. It is equally important that all parties to the transaction understand the process at each stage, and that a proper record is kept of each step. Cover in the best contracts and insurance policies can be undone by misunderstanding the practical steps for transferring artworks from one place to another or from one ownership to another.

Value, risk and the contemporary art ecosystem

Anders Petterson, Founder and Managing Director, ArtTactic Ltd

The online buyers and sellers

Since 2010, the online art industry has been experiencing rapid growth. There are now more than 300 online art market players worldwide * . These cover segments such as data, information and research, social communities, auctions and galleries, business-to-business and consumer-to-consumer art transaction platforms. In addition, social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest and ArtStack are changing the way that we communicate and share our interests around art. At the forefront of the online art market revolution are companies such as Artnet (US). Artprice (France) and Paddle8 (US) have launched their own online auctions. In the primary market, websites such as s[edition] (UK), Artspace (US), Artfinder (UK), 1stdibs (US), Exhibition A (US) and Art.sy (US) have invested heavily in an attempt to make inroads into the lower-priced segments of the art market. In August 2013, Amazon also announced its entry into the art market through its Amazon Art Market section, kicking off with more than 40,000 artworks by over 4,500 artists offered by in excess of 150 galleries. A recent study done by Hiscox and ArtTactic on the online art trade suggests that the barriers to buy art online (sight unseen) are much lower than one might expect, with 72 per cent of the survey respondents †  saying they had bought art based on looking at a JPEG image only. It is clear that art consumers and their behaviour are changing. Existing business models in the art market will have to adapt to survive, and we would expect a new, modified art ecosystem to evolve in the future.

In the late 1990s, a number of companies such as Artnet and Artprice, launched their online fine art auction databases, providing a significant increase in price transparency. Whilst past auction data was published in annual book volumes, the online databases provided instant and easy access to historic art auction prices, reducing the inefficiencies and level of asymmetric information that typically existed between buyers and sellers in the art market. In 2005, ArtTactic, the company I founded officially in 2011, launched its first art market ‘ Confidence Index ’  described earlier in the chapter. In recent years, a number of players have entered the market for art analysis and analytical tools, such as Beautiful Asset Advisors, Tutela Capital and Skate ’ s. Artnet also launched its art market analytics product in 2010. Data, analysis, research and market commentary are becoming important tools for the new group of buyers and sellers that have entered the market of late, including the emergence of the art and fi  nance industry mentioned above. With a growing number of followers, the opinions and analysis of these companies are likely to start having a greater influence on the marketplace.

The incredible growth in social media has also had an impact on the art market. Facebook and Twitter are actively being used by artists, galleries, museums and auction houses as new communication and marketing tools. In addition, new start-ups such as ArtStack have captured large audiences that want to share their art and their interest with others. The Value, risk and the contemporary art ecosystem   85 aggregate voice of social media and the large audiences it attracts could have a significant impact on how we form our perception and opinion about art in the future. Again, the interesting fact is that these opinions are currently driven by art enthusiasts and the informed public –  and not necessarily by those previously viewed as ‘ tastemakers ’ . Although one might assume that the above operators are solely there to support the existing art market, the future might see several of these operators evolve into becoming something else. In fact, this is already happening: both Artnet and Artprice have set up their own art sales platforms, aiming to offer their clients more than just information; also the actual art itself.

May 6 F2F – Notes

According to David Hesmondhalgh, the core cultural and creative industries include:

  • Broadcasting: radio, television (cable, satellite and digital forms)
  • Film industries
  • Music industries
  • Print and electronic publish
  • Video and computer games
  • Advertising, marketing and public relations
  • Web design

Creation of Symbolic goods, Copy write, intangible

How’s the evolution of Creative and Cultural Industry?  4th of the “Cultural industry” by Hesdmonhal D?

Initially, “Cultural industry” was a word rejected, since it is considered popular art, that differentiate with High art form, like opera.., but then from the revolution of industrialization, Cultural industry becomes more widely used in consumers, and also to further differetiate itself, Creative and Cultural industry was emerged and coined. Example: HK’s CCi.

A good starting point for thinking about long-term historical change in cultural production is provided by Raymond Williams in his book Culture. Adaptiong Williams (1981: 38-56), we can identify three eras in the development of cultural production in Europe, each of them named after the main form of social relations between Symbok, Creator, and wider society prevailing at the time. (Hesmondhalgh, 2010, 66)

Stage One: Patronage and Artisanal

Stage Two: Market professional

Stage Three: Corporate (Complex) professional-